Land, Rivers, Lakes Pollution

Land pollution
Land pollution is the deterioration or damage of the Earth’s crust as a result of human activity, either directly or indirectly. It’s a genuine problem that includes both governmental forces and citizens. Land pollution has a direct impact on the climate as well as, on the health of humans, animals, and plants. The hazardous wastes that pollute the land include garbage, debris, trash from houses/institutions, food wastes, and dry materials such as paper, glass, textiles, and plastic objects. The prohibited or illegal but common practices of “midnight dumping” of hazardous wastes posing major health and environmental problems.

The best solution for land pollution is to adopt 3 R’s (reduce, recycle, reuse) in regular life. Reduce the illegal activity of midnight dumping hazardous material and reduce the use of agricultural fertilizers that pollute the land. Reuse the materials also help to reduce land pollution. Recycling plastic bottles and other different materials. Try to avoid the use of packaging material that produces the garbage. Water and waste disposal also affect the land quality so it is also important to manage properly.

Future predictions
At present and in the future, achieving the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and UN strategies land conservation initiatives requires reducing the size of erosion at global scales. If land pollution does not control in present then it can cause serious effects in the future. According to The Environmental Protection Agency, in the future, this exposure to pollutants become the cause of human illness like cancer and heart disease. Land pollution also causes severe impacts on the environment and global warming in the future.

Land and Ecosystem
All living organisms and their physical habitat on a certain piece of land are referred to as land and ecosystem. The land ecosystem includes some smaller ecosystems like Tundra, Taiga, Temperate Forest, Rainforest, Grassland, and Other Terrestrial Biomes. Natural ecosystems provide many services like food, medicines, firewood, drinkable water, fresh air, local temperature regulation, and inspiration for art and cultural practices. According to Single-Service Management Systems,   Land contamination has various detrimental side effects on these services. To improve it, we need more information about the impact of land use.
Rivers and lakes pollution
Pollution has an impact on the quality of water in lakes, rivers, and other aquatic ecosystems all over the world. Pollution hazards in rivers and lakes are caused by algae and high nitrate levels. Nutrients, sediment, and particles collect when rivers when waters are stagnated, raising the risk of harmful pollution and algae blooms. According to the EPA’s 2010 National Lakes Assessment, nearly 20% of the 50,000 lakes evaluated were damaged by organic matter contamination. Chemical waste products from industrial activities are sometimes released into rivers and lakes which can be hazardous to water bodies as well as human health.

According to the US Environmental Protection Agency, “reduce runoff of rainwater or melted snow into rivers and lakes to improve water quality”. It is critical to prevent contaminants from poisoning rivers and lakes, as this aids in the cleaning and effective use of water. Pollution can be controlled on many levels, from the individual to the community, state, and government levels. Agriculture uses 70% of the world’s water resources, so it’s critical to grow climate-friendly crops and it’s necessary to utilize organic fertilizers that not harming the water bodies like rivers and lakes.
Future predictions
According to a global study conducted by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and Veolia, many countries’ water quality is quickly decreasing. According to the study, by 2050, up to 1 in 3 people will be exposed to a high risk of water pollution due to elevated nitrogen and phosphorus levels. Up to one in every five people will be exposed to a high risk of waterborne disease. According to prior extensive research, half of the world’s population will be threatened by water scarcity by 2050 unless better sustainable water resource management practices are adopted.
Rivers and ecosystem
Rivers are more important in the ecosystem both for aquatic as well as human life. The importance of sustaining healthy rivers in terms of both ecological and economic advantages cannot be overstated.  We need to save ecosystems for the survival of both animals and people, we must act quickly. In a report, it is stated that “Freshwater biodiversity is our canary in the mine, and if freshwater ecosystems can’t support healthy species, it’s a sure sign that they’re not good for mankind either.”
Mountains and ecosystem
Mountainous regions occupy one-fourth of the world’s land surface, are the most diversified in landscapes, that providing direct life support to 10% of humanity. In mountainous locations, living is complicated. The climate of the mountain ecosystem differs from that of the surrounding lowlands, and as a result, the plant differs as well. Mountain communities confront particular obstacles, such as a fragile ecosystem, natural disasters, and vast distances to markets, educational institutions, and healthcare, as well as significant unemployment.
Mining and ecosystem
Mining includes exploration, construction, operation, maintenance, expansion, abandonment, decommissioning, and repurposing of a mine can all have a beneficial or negative impact on ecosystems in both direct and indirect ways. The positive impact of mining on the ecosystem is that it is usually a source of local employment and may contribute to economic activity in terms of beneficial benefits. Human health and living standards difficulties are examples of negative consequences of mining on the ecosystem.

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